Damavand Facts

Quick Facts & Info about Mount Damavand Iran
Interesting facts, information and guidance for trekking Mount Damavand.

Mount Damavand Hiking Trekking & Climbing Tours
Mount Damavand Hiking Trekking & Climbing Tours
  • Elevation: 5,670 m, 18,600 feet (see my GPS measurement).
  • Listing: Seven Volcanic Seven Summits (V7S).
  • Location: North-east Tehran – Mazandaran Province, Iran.
  • Mountain Range: Alborz Chain.
  • Prominence: 4,667 m. It is ranked the 12th most prominent peak in the globe.
  • Trekking Routes: The south route, west front, north-east side and the north route.
  • Volcanic Activity: At this time Damavand volcano emits sulfuric gas at the top and has thermal springs at the base.
  • Peak Coordinates: Lat: 35.954466°, Lon: 52.110020°
  • Distance: From Tehran, 80 km drive to the first camp Polour.
  • Nearest airports: IKA Airport and Mehrabad Airport.
  • Last eruption: About 7,300 years ago.
  • Symbolism: It serves as a figure for Iranian resistance to foreign control in Persian poetry and literature.
  • Ranking: In terms of volcanic seven summits (V7S), the Damavand volcano ranks third. It is also the tallest volcano in Asia, the second highest volcano in the northern hemisphere, and the highest mountain in Iran and the middle-east. The height of Damavand’s summit in relation to its lowest valley, the Haraz Valley, is 4,667 meters. Damavand mountain is the world’s 12th-highest summit in terms of prominence.
Damavand Mountain Ski Touring Guide
Damavand Mountain Ski Touring Guide

Damavand Trekking Facts, Info and Guide.

  • Elevation Gain: 2670 meters, 8760 feet.
  • Best Trekking Time: July to September.
  • Best Climbing Program: 3 to 5 days itinerary.
  • Ideal Beginning Days: Saturday and Sunday. Visit Crowd.
  • Best Starting Point: Polour Campsite for the south and the west routes. Nandal Camp for the north and northeast routes.
  • Climbing Season: For experienced climbers, the entire year. For average climbers, mid-June to mid-September is ideal.
  • DifficultyThe southern path is moderate trekking, easy downhill.
  • • Simplest Hiking Path: Basic hiking and trekking can be done on the southern path in the summer. Visit also Damavand Facts.
  • Moderate Hiking Route: The west path is a straightforward trip with a moderate ascent and a challenging descent.
  • Longest Climbing Route: North-east side, Gazaneh trail, is the longest mountaineering route.
  • Hardest Trekking Route: The North Face, a scrambling climbing route, is the hardest climb.
  • Trekking Distance: The Goosfand-Sara South Route’s base camp is 8 kilometres away from the summit (about 10 hours).
  • Most Popular Route: • The traditional south route is the most popular.
  • Climbing Guide: The most skilled guiding group for trekking tours in Damavand is the Damavand Guide Team.
Mount Damavand Climbing Tour
Mount Damavand Climbing Tour

Brief Facts and Data for Ski Touring Damavand
It mainly Depends on the weather and the amount of snow.

  • Ski Season & Snow Availability: December through mid-May. The best months to go skiing are March and April.
  • Best Ski Route: Damavand south route ski resort.
  • Best Ski Program: 7-day itinerary
  • Snow Depths: 2 to 5 meters
  • Vertical Ski Drop: Maximum 3000 meters from the summit to the asphalt road.
  • Total Skiable Distance: Peak to asphalt road distance is ideal at 12000 meters.
  • Ski Guide: The most knowledgeable guiding team for ski mountaineering and ski touring is the Damavand ski guide team.

    Damavand Facts 23GUD0318A
Facts and Info about Mount Damavand Iran
Mount Damavand Hike Trek Climb Ski Tour Camp
Facts and Info about Mount Damavand Iran

Facts and Information about Mount Damavand, Iran
Damavand Peak, which is frequently surrounded by clouds, is significant in Persian mythology and folklore. More than one of the nation’s incredible natural wonders can be found in Damavand. Another name for this enormous peak in perfect cone shape is Damavand Volcano.

It is situated on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea in the northern part of Iran, in the centre of the Alborz Mountain Range. The height of Damavand Mountain is 5670 meters above sea level (See also Damavand Height by our GPS Measurement). The Damavand Volcano is the second-highest volcano in the northern hemisphere and the tallest volcano in Asia.

In the winter, snow covers the entire mountain; in the other seasons, it just covers the top parts. A shallow summit crater on Damavand is typically covered in snow and clouds. The most magnificent sight in Iran is the snow-white peak with its characteristic Cloud Cap. The Alborz Chain contains many attractive peaks that encircle Damavand. This enormous mountain appears more beautiful from a distance than it does up close. In a clear sky, as far as 250 kilometres away can see the Damavand top, the snow-covered peak of Damavand can be seen in the distance from the Iranian capital Tehran and from the cities of Tehran, Qom, Varamin, and the shores of the Caspian Sea.

Simply visit Iran to hike, ski, climb, or explore this massive volcano to get a sense of its size. Mt. Damavand is one of the global Volcanic Seven Summits (V7S). Moreover, Damavand is classified as the planet’s 12th-highest prominence (the scale is Mt Everest in Himalayan). In addition to this snow-capped volcano, Iran is home to other unexplored hiking trails, trekking places, ski mountaineering heights, ski touring regions, and ski resorts. There are several well-known glaciers, including Yakhar, Sioleh and Dobi Sel.

Damavand south route summit Location
Lat: 35.954466°, Lon: 52.110020°. Alt: 5670 m
Mount Damavand South Route Summit
Location: Lat: 35.954466°, Lon: 52.110020°. Alt: 5670 m

Damavand Climbing & Ski Touring Facts
Mount Damavand Iran is a popular tourist destination, the climbing community is particularly interested in visiting this peak because of its immense significance. Particularly, there is no scarcity of potential climbers seeking to scale this peak due to the difficulty of ascending each continent’s highest volcano.

Damavand Camp: There are 10 camps and shelters located on Mount Damavand for climbers. These Damavand campsites and refuges, which are positioned in key spots along the 4 routes to the Damavand summit, give trekkers a chance to rest and acclimate to the altitude.

Climbing: Trekking Damavand is a popular activity for climbers and hikers, attracting thousands of visitors every year, with many people attempting to reach the summit each year.

Climbing Difficulty: The mountain is known for its challenging climbing conditions, including steep slopes, high altitudes, and unpredictable weather.

Climbing Routes: Damavand mountain has 16 known trekking routes, with the most popular one being the southern route, which starts from the village of Polour. But there are more routes to climb Damavand, with varying degrees of difficulty, and climbers are advised to be properly equipped and prepared for the high altitude and challenging terrain.

Climbing Season: The climbing season for Damavand is typically from late June to mid-September, but the mountain can be climbed year-round by experienced climbers.

Guide: The ideal trek to plan for this ascent for international climbers is to contact Damavand Guide or Damavand Info tour companies that specialize in Damavand mountaineering. They are able to undertake all essential preparations, including obtaining authorization for Damavand climbing permits to scale the peak. By climbing standards, only a reasonable level of fitness and some acclimatization to the altitude are needed for this ascent.

Routes: Although there are various ways to reach the summit, the southern face is the most well-known and arguably the simplest. There are porters and perhaps mules available to assist with load carrying, and there are now three huts and shelters along the southern route at elevations of 2250 m, 3050 m and 4250 m. The last 300 meters of the ascent, where sulphurous vapours are frequently impossible to avoid, are the most challenging. Nonetheless, the view from the summit is just breathtaking. One of the most magnificent volcanoes in the entire globe is undoubtedly Mount Damavand.

Ski Touring: The mountain is a popular destination for ski touring and snowboarding, with several ski resorts located in the surrounding areas. It is a favourite target for ski mountaineering and snowboard tours. The most popular ski climbing route is the southern route, which starts from the village of Polour.

 Damavand Trekking Facts and Info – The Best Guidance for Climbing Damavand Mountain
Damavand Trekking Facts and Info
The Best Guidance for Climbing Damavand Mountain

Damavand Interesting Facts & Info
The Iranians’ national emblem is the Damavand. The Damavand figure represents tenacity and resistance in Iranian popular culture. Moreover, Damavand has long been revered as a holy mountain by both the inhabitants of the Alborz Mountains and ancient Iranians. Furthermore, Damavand is a representation of national togetherness, and you can find its images on the walls of Iranian cities. On Iran’s list of national natural monuments, this mountain is listed first. This guide is intended to make mountaineers’ ascent of Mount Damavand more enjoyable. In this manner, when you tread on it, you may sense the importance of this enormous beauty for Iranians. Iran’s population loves and reveres its snow-capped summit just as much as the Japanese do Fujiyama.

You may have noticed the image of Damavand on the reverse of the Iranian currency. This may be a sign of the potential significance of Mount Damavand for the people of Iran. About Mount Damavand, there are a lot of intriguing cultural and natural facts.

Cap Cloud: Capped lenticular cloud on Mount Damavand. Clouds come in a variety of shapes and families and form under various conditions. One of the most stunning clouds to be observed from a mountaintop is a cap cloud. It resembles a lenticular or an umbrella and is formed by the cooling and condensation of moist air rising over the summit. It will remain stationary on a mountaintop for a few hours in the absence of strong winds. This lovely cloud cap occasionally forms. Early in the morning is perhaps a good time to watch this fascinating phenomenon.

When you look up at Mount Damavand, you can see that Damavand Peak’s summit is completely obscured by clouds. As is, it serves as a helmet to shield Damavand from any damage that might fall from the skies! The abrupt cooling of the air is another scientific explanation for why the clouds over Damavand are forming in this way. The temperature drop that occurs when the swift airflow ascends the mountain causes the moisture in the air to condense into clouds. Moreover, only mountains taller than 5000 meters, such as Mount Damavand, experience this occurrence. Moreover, this cloud may only last a short while. If the mountain weather is calm, the cloud cap can remain there for a longer period of time.

Mount Damavand Cloud Cap during sunrise
Damavand Mountain Cloud Cap during sunrise

Cultural and Historical: Damavand is an important cultural symbol for the Iranian people, the mountain has a significant cultural and historical significance in Iran, and has been mentioned in several Persian legends, myths, literature, poetry, and art. The mountain has been the site of several religious and spiritual ceremonies. It’s also been mentioned in works of literature by Iranian poets and writers.

Fake Summit: In the southern route of Damavand, in addition to the Ice waterfall, there is another feature that might capture your eye. You believe you can see the peak of Damavand when you are in camp 3 on Damavand Mountain. You don’t, though! The summit of Damavand Mountain is not what can be seen from camp 3. The actual peak of Damavand is at least 200 meters (or almost an hour of climbing) higher than this fake summit. Snag-e Mosalasi, which translates to “Triangle Stone” is the name for this fictitious peak.

First Ascending: More than 1000 years ago, Mount Damavand was the subject of the first ascent. An Arab geographer named Abu Dolaf attempted to conquer Mount Damavand. He could only ascend a portion of this wonderful beauty, though. But as he claimed, he discovered in Damavand a sizable lake that was surrounded by sulfur stones. In the 1970s, Europeans first tried to climb Damavand. French naturalist Olivier was assigned the task of ascending Damavand in 1798. Despite his best efforts, he was unable to climb Damavand. According to the records, William Taylor Thomson, a British diplomat, was the first to ascend the Damavand peak in 1837. On the Damavand peak, he was the first person to spend the night. After that, Mount Damavand was finally conquered by the Iranians in 1857. 130 years ago was the first time anyone spent the night at Damavand Peak.

Flora and Fauna: The mountain is home to various plant and animal species, including wild goats, wolves, and eagles. Some of the plant species found on Damavand are endemic to the region and are not found anywhere else in the world.

Glaciers: Damavand mountain has a permanent snow cap and some glaciers, which are a source of water for the surrounding regions. There are a few permanent glaciers on the mountain, including the Yakhar Glacier, Sioleh Glacier and Dobi-Sel Glacier, which are the amount the largest glaciers in Iran.

Height Ranking: The first interesting fact about Mount Damavand, Iran you might be aware of is that it is Iran’s tallest summit. Moreover, it is the tallest volcano in Asia and the Middle East, respectively. Mount Damavand, Mount Elbrus and Mont Blanc mountains are on the list of the top 100 mountains in the world. The prominence of a peak is the minimum height necessary to descend to get from the summit to any higher land. Moreover, Damavand is Asia’s second-most prominent peak

Height: Elevation: Damavand 5,670 meters (18,600 feet) is the highest peak in Iran and the Middle East, it is the highest volcano in Asia and the second highest volcano in North Hemisphere.

Hot Springs: There are several hot springs located around Damavand, which are believed to have therapeutic properties. The most famous of these is the Larijan hot spring, which is located at the base of the mountain. The SPA and sulfuric hot springs near the mountain with the healing properties are popular destinations for tourists.

Icy Waterfall: A cascade of ice between 8 and 12 meters high can be seen while ascending on the southern path of Damavand. The name of this icefall is Abshar Yakhi or Damavand Icy Waterfall. Moreover, this frozen waterfall has a pit at the top that accumulates snow during the winter. In the summer, the snow in the hole begins to melt and pours down. Snow melts in this manner, creating a cascade. The waterfall then freezes as the temperature drops. The waterfall is always frozen, with the exception of very hot summer, when a little amount of water runs over it. Abshar Yakhi ice Waterfall is located 5000 meters above average sea level. This indicates that Yakhi waterfall is also the Middle East’s highest-altitude waterfall.

Damavand Mountain, Iran
Damavand Hiking Facts and Information
The Best Guidance for Climbing Mount Damavand
Mount Damavand Iran The highest volcano in Asia
Damavand Hiking Facts and Information
The Best Guidance for Climbing Mount Damavand

Literature: The intriguing details about Damavand go beyond its natural features. Iran’s Damavand is more than just a mountain with scenic views or a place to go hiking. As a national emblem, Damavand has left marks of significance in Iranian culture. The Persian epic literature contains a lot of information about Damavand. For Iranians, Damavand is a representation of solidarity and resistance. It therefore wouldn’t be unusual for Iranian poets to use it to express their protests in their works.

There are verses about Damavand in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh (Book of the Kings), an Iranian poet. Further information on it is available in the article on Damavand mythology. One of the most well-known poems about Damavand was written by poet Mohammad-Taqi Bahar in the 19th century. Also, he utilized Damavand as a representation of protest and opposition to injustice. This is how his poem starts:

Oh, white demon chained!
Damavand, o’dome of the universe!
You wear an iron belt around your waist and a silver helmet on your head!

Location: Around 80 kilometres (km) drive to the northeast of Tehran, Iran’s capital city, on the Haraz Road, close to the town of Amol, is where you’ll find Damavand. Damavand is located in the Alborz mountain range, in the province of Mazandaran, northeast of Tehran, the capital of Iran.

Location of Damavand Summit: The Damavand volcano is a nicely shaped volcano, and at the top, there is a summit crater that measures between 200-400 meters in diameter instead of a single peak. There are several routes to climb Damavand due to its conical shape. It features multiple summits that serve as the highest point for several routes. You will get to different portions of the Damavand crater depending on the climbing path you decide to take.

The Damavand south route summit, the Damavand north face peak, the Damavand west route top, and the Damavand east route pinnacle are all various portions of the crater that might be referred to as separate peaks for different climbing routes.

location coordinates: Damavand south route summit geographical coordinates are:
Lat: 35.954466°, Lon: 52.110020°, Alt: 5670 m.

Coordinate Converter: GPS Coordinate Converter, Latitude / Longitude Conversion. Convert latitude and longitude between decimal degrees and degrees, minutes, and seconds. 

Alborz Mountain Range & Damavand Mountain, Iran
Damavand Mountain
Located in the middle of the Alborz Mountains

Myth: Damavand has a special place in Persian mythology and literature, and is mentioned in several works, including the Shahnameh, a famous epic poem written by Ferdowsi. According to legend, the hero Zahhak was imprisoned in a cave on the mountain by the hero Kaveh. The Iranian nation’s emblem, Mount Damavand, is well known and is even depicted on some of the money. In Persian mythology, it is claimed to be home to a three-headed monster that will stay there till the end of the world and to be the location from whence a magic arrow was thrown to mark the country’s border.

National Damavand Day: The Damavand national day (Tirgan) is observed on July 3rd. This day has long been a source of celebration for Iranians. Tirgan is the centre of the national Damavand Day festival. Many people are also aware that Arash, the archer, is connected to the decision to commemorate Damavand on this particular day. One of the figures from the legend of Damavand is Arash the Bowman. He is a hero for having spared Iran from ongoing hostilities with Touran. In his tale, Arash shoots his arrow from the summit of Damavand Mountain. The border between Iran and Touran was established where the arrow fell. Arash released his arrow on the day of the national Damavand day.

Arash the Archer or Arash the Bowman in Persian Arash Tiradndaz or Arash Kamangir
Arash the Archer or Arash the Bowman in Persian Arash Tiradndaz or Arash Kamangir

Nature: Are there any creatures living on Damavand? is one of the queries that come to mind. Indeed, it is the answer. Even at its highest point of 400 meters, Mount Damavand supports a variety of animal species. These creatures include dogs, wolves, foxes, jackals, and bears. So, even though they typically do not hurt people, you should be aware of them. On the Damavand Peak, other bird species can also be found. Several of them are raptors, including golden eagles.

Other flying creatures that you might spot on Damavand mountain are owls and bats. In addition to predatory creatures, Damavand is home to herbivores. Rabbits, hogs, and rams are a few examples. Rabbits and hogs remain at lower elevations of this mountain, in contrast to rams who ascend as high as 5000 meters. The crimson poppies that grow on the Damavand slopes are another distinctive aspect. For many Iranians, these blooms are among the natural attractions. These poppies are in bloom in spring at elevations between 2000 and 3500 meters on the hills of Damavand.

Poems: The mountain has been the subject of several poems by famous Persian poets, including Ferdowsi, Hafez and Saadi. Damavand has been mentioned in several works of literature and poetry from ancient times to the present day, including the Shahnameh, Divan-e Hafez, and the results of Rumi.

Protected Area: Damavand has been designated as a wildlife zone protected area by the Iranian government, and several measures have been taken to preserve its natural and cultural heritage.

Scientific Expeditions: The mountain has been the site of several scientific expeditions and research, including a study by the University of Tehran on the effects of climate change on the mountain’s glaciers. The mountain has been the site of several scientific expeditions, including studies on its geology, ecology, hydrology and geothermal energy.

Damavand ski touring and ski mountaineering guide
Damavand Trekking Facts and Info
The Best Guidance for Ski Touring Damavand
Damavand ski touring and ski mountaineering guide
Damavand Trekking Facts and Info
The Best Guidance for Ski Touring Damavand

Source of Water: Damavand is an important source of water for the surrounding regions, including the city of Tehran, and several rivers and streams originate from its glaciers and snowfields.

The mountain has been a symbol of Iranian resistance and independence and has been featured in several Iranian revolutionary songs and poems. Damavand is featured on the reverse side of the Iranian 10,000 rial banknote.

Temperature: Depending on the season and altitude, the climate in Damavand can range from extremely warm to cold. At lower elevations and in the Damavand Camp, temperatures can be more comfortable. At the top, temperatures can dip to -70°C (-95°F) or lower.

Views: The summit of Damavand offers panoramic views of the surrounding landscape, including the Caspian Sea to the north and the Alborz mountain range to the south. On a clear day, Damavand’s summit can be seen from the Caspian Sea and Iran desert, which is over 100 kilometres (62 miles) away.

Volcano: Damavand is a stratovolcano, which means it’s a tall, conical-shaped volcano composed of many layers of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and ash. These layers of lava and ash, indicate that it has erupted multiple times in the past. Damavand is part of the Iranian Volcanic Belt, which stretches from the Caucasus Mountains to the Makran region in southeastern Iran. The southern flank of the mountain is home to a large field of fumaroles, which emit steam and sulfur dioxide gas.

Technically speaking, Damavand volcano is a stratovolcano, which means that it is composed of layers of volcanic rock. It rises from the southern rim of a 9 km wide caldera and is located in a region that was once volcanically active. When a volcano collapses in on itself, a big crater called a caldera is created.

There is no such thing as an inactive volcano in terms of volcanology, but some erupt more regularly than others. The last eruption of Damavand was around 5300 BC, according to scientific evidence, and there are no historical accounts of it ever happening. It could be tempting to categorize Damavand volcano as a dormant volcano, yet its peak does spew hot sulphurous gas spurts known as fumaroles, and at lower elevations, hot springs appear, indicating volcanic activity relatively near to the surface. Damavand may be more accurately described as sleeping than dormant.

Volcanic Crater: The latest eruption of Mount Damavand occurred between 6,000 and 10,000 years ago. The crater of Mount Damavand is completely surrounded by yellow sulfur stones. The crater of Damavand has a diameter of about 200–400 meters. Moreover, a frozen lake and snow usually fill the 30-meter-deep crater. Moreover, there are remnants of two older craters on Damavand’s northern and southern edges.

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Volcanic Activity of Damavand Volcano
Volcanic Activity of Damavand Volcano

Volcanic Seven Summits: The Seven Summits (7S), the tallest mountains on each continent, are very popular. Climbing the Volcanic Seven Summits (V7S) is a simpler choice than avoiding summits higher than 8000 meters, such as Mt. Everest. Finding the right place to go is not difficult when ascending the Seven Summits!
The Seven Summits of Volcanoes (sorted by elevation) Concerned are the tallest volcanoes on each of the seven continents.

1 – Ojos del Salado 6,893m – South America
2 – Kilimanjaro 5,895m – Africa
3 – Damavand 5,670m – Asia
4 – Elbrus 5,642m – Europe
5 – Pico de Orizaba 5,636m – North America
6 – Giluwe 4,368m – Australia
7 – Sidley 4,285m – Antarctica

Weather: Damavand weather can be dreadful, with lows below zero and strong winds at higher heights. It is essential that climbers carefully plan their ascent and be ready for unforeseen weather changes. Depending on the time of year and altitude, Mount Damavand’s climate can change dramatically.

The weather on Mount Damavand can vary greatly depending on the season and elevation. During the summer months (June to September), the weather on Mount Damavand is generally mild with warm temperatures at the base of the mountain and cooler temperatures at higher elevations. However, there can be occasional rain showers and thunderstorms.

In the winter months (December to March), the weather on Mount Damavand can be harsh, with cold temperatures and heavy snowfall. The temperature at the summit can drop to -700°C (-95°F) or lower, and winds can be strong and gusty.

If you are planning to climb Mount Damavand, it is essential to check the weather forecast and be prepared for all conditions. It is recommended to climb during the summer months when the weather is more stable and the conditions are more favourable.

Mt. Damavand Weather Forecast
Extrem weather forecast for Mt Damavand ski touring and winter climbing guided tours

Wildlife: Damavand is home to a variety of wildlife, including the Persian leopard, the Asiatic black bear, and the Caspian snowcock. The mountain also has a unique ecosystem of alpine flora and fauna.

Mount Damavand and its surrounding areas are home to a variety of wildlife species. Some of the most notable species include:

Persian ibex: A wild goat species found in the mountains of Iran, including Mount Damavand. They are known for their impressive horns and are well-adapted to life in mountainous regions.

Eurasian brown bear: A large carnivorous mammal found in the forests surrounding Mount Damavand. They are an essential part of the ecosystem and play a key role in maintaining the balance of the local environment.

Grey wolf: A highly adaptable predator that is found in the forests and mountains of Iran, including Mount Damavand. They are known for their intelligence and are an important part of the local ecosystem.

Caspian snowcock: A large game bird that is found in the alpine regions of Mount Damavand. They are known for their distinctive calls and are a popular target for hunters.

Bezoar goat: A wild goat species that is found in the mountains of Iran, including Mount Damavand. They are known for their impressive horns and are an important part of the local ecosystem.

There are also a variety of smaller animals, such as foxes, martens, and various bird species, that call Mount Damavand home. It is important to respect the wildlife and their habitat when visiting the area.

World Heritage: In 2021, Damavand was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, due to its cultural and natural significance.

Route to Damavand South Damavand Hiking Guide from the South Route
Route to Damavand South Damavand Hiking Guide from the South Route

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